Contents of Books
Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

Contents of Major Books

The Constitution of the State of Israel 1996-5756
I.   Introduction - Daniel J. Elazar

II.  Constitutional Laws Enacted by the Twelfth Knesset
Uriel Lynn, Chairman, Knesset Constitution,
Law and Justice Committee

III. Constitutional Documents
The Declaration of Independence (1948)
The Law of Return (1950)
World Zionist Organization -Jewish Agency (Status) Law (1952)

IV.  Basic Laws
The Knesset (1958)
The Government (1968; revised 1992)
The President of the State (1964)
The Judicature (1984)
Israel Lands (1960)
The State Economy (1975)
The Army (1976)
Jerusalem, Capital of Israel (1980)
The State Comptroller (1988)
Human Dignity and Liberty (1992)
Freedom of Occupation (1992; revised 1994)

Major Knesset Debates, 1948-1981 (6 Volumes)

General Introduction: The Knesset - Israel's Parliament

PEOPLE'S COUNCIL  4-14 May 1948

Report by Chairman of the People's Directorate on the Political
and Military Situation
Sitting 1, 4 May 1948
Statement by the Chairman of the People's Council
Sitting 2, 5 May 1948
Draft of Declaration of Establishment of State of
Sitting 3, 14 May 1948
Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel
Sitting 4, 14 May 1948

PROVISIONAL COUNCIL OF STATE  14 May 1948-10 February 1949
Proclamation of State -- Statements; Law and Administration
Ordinance, 1948
Sitting 1, 16 May 1948
Prime Minister's Report; Declaration of State of Emergency;
Merchant Navy Flag; Stamp Ordinance; Questions and Answers
Sitting 2, 19 May 1948
Prime Minister's Report -- Debate
Sitting 3, 3 June 1948
Prime Minister's Statement; Report of Foreign Minister
Sitting 4, 17 June 1948
Altalena Incident
Sitting 5, 23 June 1948
Altalena Incident -- Conclusion and Vote; Situation in Jerusalem
Sitting 6, 24 June 1948
Government's Reply to U.N. Mediator's Proposals
Sitting 8, 5 July 1948
Flag and Emblem of State
Sitting 10, 15 July 1948
Foreign Minister's Report
Sitting 12, 29 July 1948
Prime Minister's Statement Following Assassination of U.N.
Sitting 19, 23 September 1948
U.N. Mediator's Report
Sitting 20, 27 September 1948
Prime Minister's Report on Renewed Fighting in the Negev; State
Emblem and Flag
Sitting 24, 28 October 1948
Political Debate Prior to Armistice Negotiations at Rhodes
Sitting 35, 11 November 1948
Conclusions of Foreign Affairs Committee
Sitting 36, 13 January 1949
General Amnesty Order, 1949
Sitting 40, 10 February 1949

FIRST KNESSET  1949-1951
Opening Sitting
Sitting 1, 14 February 1949
Transition Act
Sitting 4, 16 February 1949
Inauguration of President of State of Israel
Sitting 6, 17 February 1949
Formation of Cabinet
Sitting 7, 8 March 1949
Debate on Formation of Cabinet and its Program
Sitting 8, 8 March 1949
American Credit Loan
Sitting 7, 8 March 1949
Sitting 13, 17 March 1949
State Comptroller Law
Sitting 14, 21 March 1949
Armistice Agreements with Arab Countries
Sitting 20, 4 April 1949
Armistice Agreement with Syria
Sitting 58, 20 July 1949
Sitting 62, 1 August 1949
Special Sitting to Mark Reinterment of Theodor Herzl's Remains
Sitting 69, 16 August 1949
Prime Minister's Statement Concerning Jerusalem and Holy Places
Sitting 96, 5 December 1949
Transferring Knesset and Cabinet to Jerusalem
Sitting 96, 13 December 1949
Annexation of West Bank by Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Sitting 135, 3 May 1950
Institution for Coordinating Between Government and Zionist
Sitting 139, 15 May 1950
Law of Return; Nationality Law
Sitting 160, 3 July 1950
Sitting 162, 5 July 1950
Korean Question
Sitting 161, 4 July 1950
Judges Law
Sitting 231, 26 February 1951
Foreign Minister's Statement on Conflict with Syria
Sitting 251, 14 May 1951
Security Council Resolution Regarding Hula Region
Sitting 258, 29 May 1951
Conclusion of First Knesset
Sitting 272, 20 August 1951

Reparations from Germany
Sitting 38, 7 January 1952
Official Language Bill
Sitting 102, 2 July 1952
Motion of No-Confidence by Mapam
Sitting 128, 27 August 1952
Prague Trial
Sitting 141, 24 November 1952
Severing of Diplomatic Relations with Israel by Soviet Union
Sitting 189, 16 February 1953
Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Act -- Yad Vashem
Sitting 227, 12 May 1953
Trial and Execution of Dr. Moshe Marzouk and Samuel Azaar in
Sitting 541, 31 January 1955
Change in Composition of Government
Sitting 554, 21 February 1955

THIRD KNESSET  1955-1959
Presentation of Government
Sittings 19-21; 2-3 November 1955
Foreign Policy and Defense
Sittings 50-55; 2-4, 9 January 1956
Herut's Proposal of No-Confidence
Sitting 92, 6 March 1956
Bill to Ban Pig-Rearing in Israel
Sitting 122, 23 May 1956
Changes in Composition of Government (Foreign Minister's
Sitting 138, 18 June 1956
Sitting 140, 19 June 1956
Diplomatic Relations with West Germany
Sitting 146, 2 July 1956
Foreign Policy and Defense (Pre-Sinai Campaign)
Sittings 169-173; 15-17 October 1956
Political and Military Situation
Sittings 182-183; 7 November 1956
Implementation of U.N. Assembly Resolution
Sitting 187, 14 November 1956
Persecution of Jews in Egypt
Sitting 196, 25 November 1956
Incident in the Villages of the Triangle
Sitting 203, 12 December 1956
Herut's Motion of No-Confidence
Sitting 223, 15 January 1957
Foreign Policy and Defense
Sitting 228, 23 January 1957
Foreign Policy and Defense
Sittings 249-250, 252; 21-22, 25 February 1957
Political Situation
Sittings 256-258; 5-6 March 1957
James de Rothschild's Bequest
Sitting 331, 22 July 1957
In Memory of Colonel Nehemia Argov
Sitting 358, 18 November 1957
Speaker's Address on Knesset's Tenth Anniversary
Sitting 581, 26 January 1958

Arms Sales to Germany
Sitting 35, 20 January 1960
Questions and Answers about Nazi War Criminal Eichmann
Sitting 60, 29 February 1960
Religious Front's Motion of No-Confidence
Sitting 97, 18 May 1960
Prime Minister's Statement on Arrest of Eichmann
Sitting 98, 23 May 1960
Minister of Justice's Statement to Press Regarding Eichmann Trial
Sitting 109, 8 June 1960
Prime Minister's Review of Lavon Affair
Sittings 156-160; 24-26 October 1960
Lavon Affair
Sitting 180, 23 November 1960
Sitting 205, 3 January 1961
Sitting 212, 16 January 1961
Sinking of Immigrant Ship Off Coast of Morocco
Sitting 214, 18 January 1961
Courts (Offenses Punishable by Death) Law, 5721-1961
Sitting 214, 18 January 1961
Lavon Affair (Dayan's Speech)
Sitting 217, 24 January 1961
Motion of No-Confidence by Herut and General Zionists
Sitting 220, 30 January 1961
Resignation of Government
Sitting 223, 1 February 1961
Prime Minister's Application to Supreme Court Judge Regarding
Meaning of "Bias"
Sitting 239, 27 February 1961
Security Procedures in Ministry of Defense
Sitting 274, 17 May 1961
Israel-Diaspora Relations
Sitting 274, 17 May 1961

FIFTH KNESSET  1961-1965
Israel's Vote at U.N. Regarding Sanctions Against South Africa
Sitting 34, 27 November 1961
Press Reports of Israeli Weapons in Possession of Portuguese Army
Sitting 38, 29 November 1961
Israel and the Common Market
Sitting 48, 13 December 1961
Vote by Israel's Delegation to U.N. on Refugee Problem
Sitting 68, 10 January 1962
Reparations for Austrian Jews who were Victims of Nazi
Sitting 83, 31 January 1962
Disappearance of Yossele Schumacher
Sitting 121, 3 April 1962
U.N. Security Council Resolution (Reprisal Against Syria)
Sitting 126, 10 April 1962
Motion of No-Confidence (Soblen Affair)
Sitting 155, 11 July 1962
Amendment of Transition Law on International Conventions
Sitting 204, 9 January 1963
Activities of German Scientists in Egypt
Sitting 234, 20 March 1963
Prime Minister's Position and Resignation of Head of Security
Special Sitting, 7 April 1963
Making the Mediterranean a Nuclear-Free Zone
Sitting 238, 12 June 1963
Human Rights Charter
Sitting 320, 15 January 1964
Prime Minister's Resignation
Sitting 421, 15 December 1964
Prime Minister's Statement on Establishment of Diplomatic
Relations with West Germany
Sitting 460, 16 March 1965

SIXTH KNESSET  1965-1969
Opening Sitting (Ben-Gurion's Address)
Sitting 1, 22 November 1965
Claim Regarding Atomic Work at Dimona Reactor
Sitting 7, 7 December 1965
Reports of Visits to Dimona Reactor by U.S. Government
Sitting 79, 5 July 1966
Sitting 81, 11 July 1966
Budget Law, 5726-1966
Sitting 51, 23 March 1966
New Knesset Building; Basic Law: the Government
Special Sitting, 31 August 1966
Prime Minister's Statement on Defense and Political Situation
Sitting 97, 17 October 1966
Proposal to Make President Head of Armed Forces
Sitting 105, 2 November 1966
Abolition of the Military Government
Sitting 107, 8 November 1966
Security Situation
Sitting 137, 17 January 1967
Budget Law, 5727-1967
Sitting 149, 14 February 1967
Situation on Syrian Border
Sitting 174, 12 April 1967
Political and Security Situation
Sittings 176-177, 22-23 May 1967
Security Situation
Sitting 179, 29 May 1967
Prime Minister's Statement on Military Situation
Sitting 182, 5 June 1967
Commemoration of IDF Casualties and Congratulations on Victory in
Sitting 183, 12 June 1967
Attacks on Jews in Arab Countries
Sitting 186, 21 June 1967
Preparation of a Peace Plan
Sitting 186, 21 June 1967
Treatment of Arab Population in Administered Areas and Fate of
Men in Sinai Desert
Sitting 186, 21 June 1967
Statements by Prominent Persons Regarding Return of Liberated
Territory to the Enemy
Sitting 186, 21 June 1967
Reunification of Jerusalem
Sitting 188, 27 June 1967
Arrangements for Appropriate Behavior at Holy Places
Sitting 191, 4 July 1967
Questions and Answers
Sitting 258, 26 February 1968
Municipal Services in East Jerusalem
Sitting 261, 4 March 1968
Proposal for Senior Council of State
Sitting 304, 3 July 1968
Beginning the War of Attrition
Sitting 329, 29 October 1968
Political Affiliations of IDF Officers
Sitting 372, 5 February 1969
Death of Prime Minister Levi Eshkol
Memorial Sitting, 6 March 1969
Composition and Program of New Government
Sitting 388, 17 March 1969
Public Financing of Election Campaigns
Sitting 351, 18 December 1968
Sitting 369, 29 January 1969
Sitting 426, 14 July 1969
Statement by Minister of Defense Regarding Israel's Refusal to
Withdraw from Sharm el-Sheikh Even for Peace with Egypt
Sitting 427, 15 July 1969
Speaker's Address at Conclusion of Sixth Knesset
Sitting 429, 17 July 1969

Motion of No-Confidence by Ha'Olam Hazeh-Ko'ah Hadash
Sitting 35, 3 February 1970
Who is a Jew?
Sittings 37-38; 9-10 February 1970
Break-up of National Unity Government
Sitting 101, 12 August 1970
Advance of Egyptian Missiles Towards Suez Canal
Sitting 102, 13 August 1970
Expanding and Intensifying Jewish Education in the Diaspora
Sitting 104, 1 February 1971
Debate on Proposed Basic Law: Human and Civil Rights
Sitting 458, 17 September 1973
Kidnapping of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in Austria
Sitting 460, 1 October 1973
Yom Kippur War
Sitting 461, 16 October 1973
Response to U.S. Appeal for Ceasefire
Sitting 462, 23 October 1973
Elections to Eighth Knesset and Local Authorities (Temporary
Provision) Law, 5734-1973
Sitting 463, 24 October 1973
Demand for Immediate Release of Israeli Prisoners of War in Egypt
and Syria
Sitting 465, 30 October 1973
In Honor of the Late David Ben-Gurion
Sitting 475, 10 December 1973
Government's Decision to Participate in Geneva Conference
Sitting 479, 20 December 1973

Basic Law: the Knesset (Amendment); Knesset Elections Law
(Consolidated Version) (Amendment), 5734-1974
Sitting 36, 3 April 1974
Prime Minister's Resignation; Interim Report of Commission of
Inquiry into Yom Kippur War
Sitting 37, 11 April 1974
Terrorist Attack in Ma'alot
Sitting 47, 20 May 1974
Implementing Death Penalty for Terrorists
Sitting 49, 22 May 1974
Disengagement of Forces Agreement with Syria
Sitting 52, 30 May 1974
Torture of Israeli Prisoners of War in Syria
Sitting 58, 12 June 1974
Visit to Israel of U.S. President Nixon
Sitting 61, 19 June 1974
Basic Law: the Army; Military Justice (Amendment No. 9) Law,
Sitting 207, 30 July 1975
Interim Agreement between Israel and Egypt
Sitting 210, 3 September 1975
U.N. "Zionism is Racism" Resolution
Sitting 224, 11 November 1975
Israel's Responsibility for and Policy towards Diaspora Jewry
Sitting 231, 26 November 1975
PLO Participation at U.N. Security Council
Sitting 252, 14 January 1976
Supply of French Atomic Reactors to Iraq
Sitting 257, 27 January 1976
Deteriorating Situation in Lebanon
Sitting 258, 28 January 1976
Egypt's Threats of War in Violation of Interim Agreement
Sitting 273, 3 March 1976
Dismissing Cabinet Ministers
Sitting 306, 16 June 1976
Allon Plan
Sitting 333, 21 September 1976
Basic Law: the Knesset (Amendment No. 6), 5736-1976  **Rev****
Sitting 344, 15 November 1976
Motion of No-Confidence by Orthodox Religious Front
Sitting 357, 14 December 1976
Requiring a Quorum in the Knesset
Sitting 363, 28 December 1976
Budget Law, 5737-1977
Sitting 374, 24 January 1977
Conclusion of Eighth Knesset
Sitting 397, 16 March 1977

NINTH KNESSET  1977-1981
Presentation of New Government
Sitting 3, 20 June 1977
Problems of Drafting Women into Army
Sitting 6, 29 June 1977
Prime Minister's Statement on Visit to U.S.
Sitting 18, 27 July 1977
Political Situation in Light of Joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. Statement
Sitting 27, 13 October 1977
Knesset Visit of Egyptian President Sadat
Sitting 43, 20 November 1977
Israel's Peace Plan
Sitting 61, 28 December 1977
Political Situation and Reply to Sadat's Speech
Sitting 71, 23 January 1978
Camp David Accords
Sitting 145, 25 September 1978
German Statute of Limitations for Nazi War Crimes
Sitting 156, 20 November 1978
Electoral Reform Proposal
Sitting 178, 10 January 1979
U.S. President Carter Addresses Knesset
Sitting 203, 12 March 1979
Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt
Sitting 206, 20 March 1979
Proposed Change in Parliamentary Immunity Law
Sitting 231, 6 June 1979
Proposal to Allow Prime Minister to Dismiss Ministers
Sitting 231, 6 June 1979
Basic Law: Jerusalem the Capital of Israel
Sitting 360, 23 July 1980
Proposal for Unilateral Autonomy in the Territories
Sitting 399, 24 December 1980
Proposed Basic Law: Declaration of Independence
Sitting 402, 31 December 1980
Political and Military Situation
Sitting 442, 11 May 1981

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Fundamentalist Islam and Israel

Introduction: Islamic Fundamentalism

1. The New Wave of Islam
2. Genes and Environment: The Appeal and Diffusion of Revivalist
3. The Role of Islam in President Sadat's Political Thought

4. The Impact of Islamic Fundamentalism on the Arab-Israeli
5. Contemporary Arab Media on Jews, Israel and Zionism
6. Umm al-Fahm: The Heart of Fundamentalist Islam in Israel
7. The Charter of Allah

8. Muslim Minorities under Non-Islamic Rule
9. Revivalist Islam on Trial
Postscript: The Turmoil that Lies Ahead

Political and Structural Arrangements in the New Era of Israeli-Palestinian Relations

Introduction - Daniel J. Elazar
Greetings - Michael Lange, Konrad Adenauer Foundation
Greetings - Hanns-Henning Blomeyer-Bartenstein, German Charge
d'Affaires in Israel
Address - Moshe Shahal, Minister of Police and Energy

Session 1 - Possible Structures and Relationships between Israel
and the Autonomy
Chairman: Reuven Merhav
The World Setting: Toward a New Paradigm - Daniel J. Elazar
The Autonomy: Toward a New Relationship - Zalman Shoval
The New Relationship: A Palestinian Perspective - Hatem Abu

Session 2 - The Political Implications of the New Arrangements
Chairman: Jacob Landau
Changing Political Dynamics Between Israelis and Palestinians -
Dore Gold
A Difficult and Complicated Process - Uriel Lynn
Palestinian Expectations - Manuel Hassassian

Session 3 - Related Experiences of Other Countries
Chairman: Michael Lange
Four Societies in Transition: Germany, Italy, Israel, Palestine -
Manfred Gerstenfeld
Problems of Federalism: The German Model - Gunter Kisker
Some Tentative Implications of the National Question in Canada
for the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process - Gabriel Ben-Dor

Session 4 - The Politics and Election of the Palestinian Council
Chairman: Yoash Tsiddon-Chatto
Building a Palestinian Civil Society - Hillel Frisch
The Palestinian Council and the New Relationship - Hana Siniora
Negotiations on the Issue of Elections - Meir Gabay
An Appeal for the Realization of Aspirations - Hatem Abu Ghazaleh

Session 5 - Avenues for Functional Cooperation
Chairman: Clyde Haberman
The Economic Framework - Yoash Tsiddon-Chatto
What is Functional Cooperation? - Shmuel Sandler
Economic Cooperation: The Pitfalls, the Potential, the Promises -
Reuven Merhav

Session 6 - Legal and Constitutional Issues - Settlements and
Chairman: Daniel J. Elazar
The Declaration of Principles and Its Application to the
Settlements - Moshe Drori
The Land of Israel vs. a Jewish State: The Oslo Agreement Revives
an Old Debate - Joseph Alpher
Settlements are a Major Obstacle to Peace - Radwan Abu Ayash

Closing Session
The Possibilities and the Problematics Ahead: A Summary Analysis
- Daniel J. Elazar

Two Peoples - One Land: Federal Solutions for Israel, the Palestinians, and Jordan


Chapter 1 - Self-Rule and Shared Rule
Three Parties -- Three Ambivalences / Searching for a
Solution / Looking Toward Federalism / The Problem of

Chapter 2 - The Permanent and the Transient in the Search for
Israel-Arab Peace
People and States / Impermanent Boundaries / The
Mixtures of Populations / Peace and Sovereignty /
Extraterritorial Arrangements / The Interests of the
Concerned Parties / Four Possible Solutions / From
Partition to Sharing / The Revival of the Federal
Option / Symmetries and A-Symmetries

Chapter 3 - What Are Federal Solutions?
Federalism as Structure and Process / Federalism as
Unity and Diversity / The Basic Forms of Federalism /
Federal Combinations / The Will to Federate /
Thinking Federal

Chapter 4 - Why No Separate Palestinian State West of the Jordan
The Problem of a Second Palestinian State / Divisions
Among the Palestinians / New Realities in the
Territories / Changes in the Legal System / The
Territories in the Context of the Metropolitan
Frontier / Combining People and Territory: The Local
Dimension / What Then?

Chapter 5 - Some Possible Federal Solutions
General Principles / Eleven Options /
Israel-Palestine Federation / Israel-Palestine
Confederation / A Federation of Multiple Jewish and
Arab Cantons / A Palestinian Arab State (or Entity)
Associated with Israel / Israel-Jordan Confederation
with the Palestinian Arabs Incorporated into Jordan /
Israel-Jordan Confederation with a Palestinian Entity
Federated with One or the Other / Israeli
Incorporation of the Territories with an Internal
Consociational Arrangement on a Constitutional Basis
/ A Totally Non-Territorial Consociational Federation
within the Entire Area / Condominium -- Joint
Israeli-Jordanian/Palestinian Rule Over the
Territories with the Local Authorities Attached to
One or the Other for Civil Purposes / Various Partial
or Sectoral Federal Arrangements such as a Customs
Union, Common Market, or Joint Special-Purpose
Authorities Serving Two or Three States / Bilateral
Federal Arrangements with Different Kinds of Links
between Israel, the West Bank, Gaza, or Jordan / A
Final Point

Chapter 6 - What is to Prevent a Federal Solution?
Symbolic and Emotional Demands / Timing / Political
Culture / Leadership / Political Will / The
Demographic Problem / The Influence of the
Palestinians on the Israeli Arabs / Palestinians'
Fears of Jordan (and Vice-Versa) / Settlers and
Borders / Power-Sharing and Sovereignty

Chapter 7 - The Special Case of Jerusalem
City-County Arrangements / Contractual Arrangements /
Consolidation / Federated County Systems / Federated
Municipalities / The Borough System / Federation of
Existing Municipalities / Neighborhood District
Programs / Functional Programs / Special Districts
that Function as Independent Governments / Interlocal
Networks of Accommodation / Long-Term Contractual
Links / Councils of Governments (COGs) / Regional
Planning Commission / Functional Arms of a
General-Purpose Government / Functional Service
Entities / Extralocal Models / Consociational
Arrangements / Capital Districts / Implications for

Chapter 8 - Now More Than Ever is the Time for a Federal Solution
Reagan, Hussein and Begin Opt for Shared Rule / The
Appropriate Federal Solution / The Nature of an
Israeli-Jordanian/Palestinian Confederation / A
Possible Governmental Structure / How to Achieve It /
Linking Peoples: The Political Dimension / Steps
Toward Negotiating a Solution / What Role
for the United States? / A Final Word


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Reinventing World Jewry: How to Design the World Jewish Polity

Summary and Recommendations:
The Goals, Functions, and Principal Institutions of the World
Jewish Polity
Some Fundamentals
Structural Recommendations
Option 1: Continue Incremental Development
Option 2: A Leadership Council for the Big Five
Option 3: Establish an Assembly of Major World Jewish Bodies
Option 4: Broaden JAFI
Option 5: Strengthen the Representational Base of the World
Jewish Polity
Functional Budgetary, and Coordinative Recommendations
How to Proceed

Chapter One � State and Diaspora in a Renewed Jewish Polity State
and Diaspora: World Jewry in the New World Context
Kinship and Consent: The Shape of the Postmodern Polity
Pluralism and Federalism: Constitutional Constraints on Excessive
The Spread of Organized Jewish Life
The Domains of Authority in the Jewish Polity
The Operational Spheres of the Edah
The Renewed World Jewish Polity
Key Questions for Further Study

Chapter Two - The Jewish Agency and the Other Worldwide
Instrumentalities of the Jewish People
The Jewish Agency as a Functional Authority
What Did the Reconstitution Achieve?
JAFI and the World Jewish Polity
How the Jews Function as a People
What is to be Done?
The Study

Chapter Three - The Renewed Polity
First Steps toward Jewish Polity in Modern Times
The Forging of a New Jewish Polity in the Twentieth Century
New Structures and Relationships
Categories of World Jewish Organizations
The Historic and Continuing Structure of the Edah

Chapter Four - The Key Players
Instruments of the Keter Malkhut: The Major Players
Jewish Agency for Israel
World Zionist Organization
Joint Distribution Committee
World Jewish Congress
Government of Israel
Instruments of the Keter Torah and Keter Kehunah

Chapter Five - Other Players
Agudath Israel World Organization (AIWO)
Alliance Israelite Universelle
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith (ADL)
B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundations
B'nai B'rith International (BB)
Central British Fund � World Jewish Relief
Coalition for the Advancement of Jewish Education (CAJE)
Council of Jewish Federations (CJF)
Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany
Consultative Council of Jewish Organizations (CCJO)
Coordinating Board of Jewish Organizations (CBJO)
Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
International Association of Jewish Vocational Services (IAJVS)
International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultations
International Sephardic Education Foundation
Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA)
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
Jewish Educational Service of North America (JESNA)
Jewish National Fund (JNF)
Keren Hayesod � United Israel Appeal (KH)
Maccabi World Union
Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture
Simon Wiesenthal Center
United Israel Appeal
United Jewish Appeal
Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO)
World Conference of Synagogues
World Council of Synagogues
World Labor Zionist Movement
World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries (WOJAC)
World ORT Union (ORT)
World Sephardi Federation (WSF)
World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS)
World Union of Jewish Studies
World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ)

Chapter Six -  The New Jewish Public
The New Sadducees
The Rise of the Neo-Sadducees
Coming to Grips with a Pluralistic Judaism
Neo-Sadducees and the Jewish Political Tradition
The New Sadducees and "Who is a Jew"

Chapter Seven - Existing Interrelationships in the
World Jewish Polity
Enhancing Interorganizational Collaboration
Shaping a New World Leadership
The Problem of Interorganizational Cooperation
The Expansion of the Diaspora Role in Agency Affairs

Chapter Eight - Tasks and Functions
The Development of Israel
Relief and Rescue of Jewish Communities in Need
Fighting Anti-Semitism
Representing Collective Jewish Interests in World Affairs
Mobilization of Leadership and Activists to Undertake the
Functions of the World Jewish Polity
Governance Functions in the World Jewish Polity
Assuring that There are Appropriate Bodies for Carrying On the
Functions of the World Jewish Polity
Raising Funds to Cover the Costs of these Functions
Oversight of the Organizations and Institutions Handling the
Developing Appropriate Interorganizational Relations
Dividing and Sharing Tasks and Functions
Three Periods
Tensions, Squeak Points, and Conflicts

Understanding the Jewish Agency: A Handbook, 3rd ed.


Part I: The Jewish Agency: A Summary Overview
The Jewish Agency for Israel: A Capsule History
The Jewish Agency: A Chronology

Part II: Structure and Governance of the Jewish Agency
Structure and Governance of the Jewish Agency
JAFI and its Constituent Bodies
The Budget of the Jewish Agency

Part III: Activities of the Jewish Agency
Immigration and Absorption
The Joint Authority for Jewish Zionist Education
Rural and Urban Development
Youth Aliyah
Allocations and Program Grants

Part IV: The Jewish Agency and World Jewry
The Jewish Agency Today: Myths and Realities
The Jewish Agency: An Instrument of the World Jewish Polity
The Growth of Diaspora Influence
Beyond the Present Situation

Part V: Appendices
I. Covenant Between the Government of Israel and the Jewish
Agency for Israel
II. The World Zionist Organization and Jewish Agency for Israel
(Status) Law, 5713-1952
III. Legal Status of the World Zionist Organization and the
Jewish Agency for Israel - Eli Likhovski
IV. Agreement for the Reconstitution of the Jewish Agency for
V. Amendments to the Reconstitution Agreement as Approved by the
Board of Governors, February 1991, and Approved by the Assembly,
June 1991
VI. By-laws of the Jewish Agency for Israel
VII. Memorandum on the Reconstitution Agreement - Eli Likhovski
VIII. Mission Statement of the Jewish Agency for Israel
IX. The JAFI Committee of Six

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The Political Economy of Israel: From Ideology to Stagnation


Chapter 1 - The Roar that Became a Whisper
1.1. The Bumpy Road of Political Economy
1.2. Early Growth in Israel
1.3. Growth Does Not Mean Efficiency
1.4. Other Factors

Chapter 2 - Obstacles to Growth: The Abducted Capital Market
2.1. The Absence of a Free Capital Market
2.2. The Basic Features of the Financial System
2.2.1. The Capital Market
2.2.2. The Banking System
2.3. The Background
2.4. The Interest Rate Law
2.5. The Process of Domination
2.5.1. Long-Term Capital: The Law for the Encouragement
of Capital Investment
2.5.2. Long Term Capital: The Institution of Indexation
2.5.3. Long Term Capital: Loan Indexation is Abolished
2.5.4. Short Term Capital

Chapter 3 - The Capital Market: The Origins
3.1. First Steps
3.2. The Foundation Fund (Keren Hayesod)
3.3. Land Ownership
3.4. The Private Sector Flourishes
3.5. Rhetoric vs. Facts
3.6. Early Statehood

Chapter 4 - Obstacles to Growth: The Economic Culture
4.1. The Economic Culture
4.2. The Wedge Between Effort and Reward
4.3. The Government as the Economy's Creator
4.4. The Relief from Responsibilities

Chapter 5 - The Economic Culture: The Origins
5.1. The Basic Ideology
5.2. The Origins of the Contrived Economy
5.3. Farm Primacy
5.4. The Housing Sector
5.5. The Advent of Rent Control
5.6. Unions and Wages

Chapter 6 - Obstacles to Growth: The Would-Be Business Sector
6.1. The Business Sector -- A Tour
6.1.1. The Economy's Openness
6.1.2. Industry
6.1.3. Agriculture
6.1.4. Housing
6.1.5. Labor
6.2. The Wedge
6.2.1. The Subsidization Machine
6.2.2. The Veil of Agricultural Planning
6.3. The Moral Hazard
6.3.1. Unenforced Contracts
6.3.2. The Labor Market Conundrum
6.4. A Market in Chains

Chapter 7 - The Would-Be Private Sector: The Origins
7.1. Early Farming Days
7.2. The Ideological Background
7.3. The Conquest of Labor
7.4. The First Failures of the Histadrut Economy
7.5. The Class Struggle -- Unions and Wages
7.6. The Credit Crunch
7.7. The Adaptation of the Private Sector
7.8. Early Statehood

Chapter 8 - Obstacles to Growth: The Almighty Weakling
8.1. A Summary of Government Activities
8.2. The Illusion of Strong Government
8.3. The Emasculation of Israel's Government

Chapter 9 - The Inflationary Prescription: Institutions and
9.1. The Background
9.1.1. The Cost-of-Living Allowance
9.2. The Impossibility of Monetary Policy
9.2.1. Some Basics of Monetary Policy
9.2.2. The Hijacked Targets
9.2.3. Credit Allocation and Monetary Policy
9.2.4. Tailoring Philosophy to Reality
9.3. The Oil Crisis and the New Economic Policy
9.3.1. The New Ideas
9.3.2. The Efficacy of the New Policy
9.3.3. The Cost of the New Policy
9.3.4. The Inconsistent Implementation of the New
9.3.5. Could Devaluation Have Worked?
9.4. The 1977 Ma'hapach -- Economic Reform

Chapter 10 - Inflation! -- The Obstacles Gang Up
10.1. Phase 1: The Early Stages
10.2. Phase 2: 1978
10.3. What Caused Israel's Inflation?
10.4. The Cost of Inflation
10.5. The First Attempts to Stem Inflation
10.6. The Manipulation of Bank Shares
10.7. A New Approach to Inflation -- "Dollarization"
10.8. The Bank Shares Debacle
10.9. Old Habits Die Hard

Chapter 11 - Stabilization and Missed Opportunities
11.1. Stabilization: The Program and its Impact
11.2. The Road Ahead

Israel at the Polls, 1992

The 1992 Israeli Knesset Elections: Mahapach or a Transfer of
Power? - Daniel J. Elazar and Shmuel Sandler

Part I: The Actors
Labor's Return to Power - Efraim Inbar
The Likud: The Delusion of Power - Mordechai Nisan
Fragmentation and Realignment: Israel's Nationalist Parties in
the 1992 Elections - Etta Bick
The Arab Vote in the 1992 Elections: The Triviality of Normality;
The Significance of Electoral Power - Hillel Frisch
Playing Politics in Moscow and Jerusalem: Soviet Jewish
Immigrants and the 1992 Knesset Elections - Bernard Reich, Meyrav
Wurmser, Noah Dropkin

Part II: Factors, Processes and Issues
Israel and Its Army: The Image of the IDF as an Issue in the 1992
Election Campaign - Stuart Cohen
A Nation That Dwells Alone? Foreign Policy in the 1992 Elections
- Gerald Steinberg
Political Economy and the 1992 Elections - Yitzhak Klein
Interest Groups and Political Parties in the 1992 Elections:
Rivals, Partners or Clients? - Yael Yishai
The 1992 Media Campaign: Toward the Americanization of Israeli
Elections - Sam Lehman-Wilzig

Part III: The Rabin Goverment
Yitzhak Rabin: Portrait of a Leader - Yehudit Auerbach
Change and Continuity in the Rabin Government - Daniel J. Elazar
and Shmuel Sandler

The Other Jews: The Sephardim Today

Introduction - The Old Establishment and Its New Myth
1. Sephardim and Ashkenazim: Myth and Reality
2. Israel's New Sephardic Majority
3. Decline and Revival in Europe
4. Sephardim in Africa: North, Central, and South
5. Tenuous Survival in Asia and New Frontiers in the Pacific
6. Sephardim in the Caribbean and Latin America
7. Sephardim in North America
8. The Cultural Issue
Appendix - Smaller U.S. Sephardic Communities

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Israel's New Future - Interviews



Abba Eban: Challenges in the Aftermath of Peace

Yehezkel Dror: Israel's Long-Range Prospects - A State at its
Best Ever

Moshe Arens: Israel's Insurance Value for the U.S.

Dan Segre: Can Israel Ever Trust Europe?

Mordechai Abir: Islamic Fundamentalism, the Permanent Threat

Sergio Minerbi: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back - The Vatican,
the Jews and Israel

Daniel Elazar: The Future of Israel-Diaspora Relations

David Bar-Illan: The Loaded Dice of the Foreign Media are There
to Stay


Peter Medding: Democracy and Electoral Change

Miriam Ben-Porat: Fighting the Administration's Abuse of Power

Moshe Sanbar: More Impulses for Economic Growth

Israel Katz: Changing Social Policies

Uri Marinov: Peace Promotes Environmental Awareness

Abraham B. Yehoshua: New Components of Israel's Identity

Menachem Friedman: Impending Changes for Ultra-Orthodox Society

Yaakov Gadish: A Recipe for Kibbutz Survival


Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics of American Jewry


American Jewish Uniqueness
Jews and Religion in a Nonmythic Society
A Postemancipation Community
The American Experience and the Jews: Similarities and
The United States as a Pluralistic Society: Problems, Ironies,
and Contradictions
The Problem of Peoplehood: The Unanticipated Polity

Who Came to America?
What Did They Do When They Arrived?
The Jews and the American Frontier
The Location of American Jews
Sectionalism and Jewish Settlement
The Geography of Organized Jewish Life
Integration and Discrimination

American Individualism and Patterns of Participation
The Jewish Environment of American Jewry
The New Involvement with World Jewry
Religious Challenges to Jewish Unity

Religious Movements as Expressions of Jewish Adaptation to
The Impact of America on Jewish Religious Life
Radical Environmental Change Since the 1960s and Its Impact
Other Jewish Institutions in a Religion-Oriented Environment

Sectionalism and Jewish Religious Development
Traditional Elements and Their Contemporary Manifestations
Shifting Beliefs and Communal Norm Enforcement
The Impact of Technological Change

A Noncentralized Religoethnic Community
Territorial and Nonterritorial Organization
Community Size, Rank, and Spacing: Some Role Implications

Exemplary Patterns
From Congregationalism to Federalism
Trends in Jewish Organization After World War II
The Synagogue in the New Community

Government-like Institutions
Localistic Institutions and Organizations
General Purpose, Mass-Based Organizations
Declines in the Mass-Based Organizations
Special-Interest Institutions and Organizations
Transformations in the Jewish Community Federations in the
Tenth Generation

Religious-Congregational Sphere
Educational-Cultural Sphere
New Trends in Jewish Education
Community Relations Sphere
Communal-Welfare Sphere
Israel-Overseas Sphere
Changing Roles in the Communal-Welfare and Israel-Overseas
The Spheres and the Links Between Them

A Geo-Democratic Revolution
Greater New York: A Region Fragmented Along Multiple
Northeastern New Jersey
Los Angeles
Philadelphia (Southeastern Pennsylvania, Southern New Jersey,
and Delaware) and Boston (Eastern Massachusetts)
Greater Miami and Southeastern Florida
Washington and Baltimore (The District of Columbia, Maryland,
and Northern Virginia
San Francisco Bay Area
Cleveland, Detroit, and St. Louis
Denver and Minneapolis: A Study in Contrasts
Integrated Communities
Congregatonal Communities

Four Basic Divisions
The Decision Makers: Their Roles and Functions
How Representative is the Jewish Leadership?

Defense, Education, and Social Services: The Central Tasks of
the Organized Community
The Politics of Community Finance
Maintaining the Belief System
Factors in Decision Making
Systems of Community Power and Influence

Postmodern Trends in Jewish Organization
The Trusteeship of Givers and Doers
The Unravelling of the Progressive Solution
The Reassertion of the Jewish Polity

People and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics of World Jewry

Part I: The Organizational Dynamics of Postmodern Jewry
1. The Foundations of the Jewish Polity
2. A Generation of Reconstitution
3. The Activity Spheres of the Jewish Polity
4. False Divisions and Real Domains
5. The Institutions of the Renewed Polity
6. The Jewish Agency and Israel-Diaspora Relations
7. The New Jewish Public

Part II: Centers of the Reconstituted Commonwealth
8. Israel as a Jewish State
9. Jewish Frontier Experiences in the NEw World
10. The State of American Jewry
11. Jewries of the British Commonwealth
12. Argentina and Brazil: Similarities and Contrasts
13. Latin Amerian Jewries: The Other Hispanic Communities
14. The Reshaped Communities of Western Europe
15. The Reconstituted Kehillot of Central Europe
16. The Mediterranean Communities: A New Focus
17. Shadow Communities in the Communist World
18. Surviving Communities in the Communist World
19. Remnant Communities in the Arab World
20. Declining Communities in Muslim West Asia
21. Far-flung Diasporas in the Third World
22. Building Citizenship in the Renewed Polity
Appendix 1 - A Note on Sources
Appendix 2 - Studying Jewish Communities: A Research Guide

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The Jewish Polity: Jewish Political Organization from Biblical Times to the Present

An Introduction to the Jewish Political Tradition

Part One: The Classic Biblical Epochs
Epoch I: The Forefathers
Epoch II: Egyptian Bondage
Epoch III: The Congregation of Israelites
Epoch IV: The Federal Monarchy
Epoch V: The Kingdom of Judah

Part Two: The Second Commonwealth and Its Aftermath
Epoch VI: The Great Assembly
Epoch VII: The Jewish Commonwealth
Epoch VIII: The Sanhedrin and the Patriarchate

Part Three: The Great Dispersion
Epoch IX: The Yeshivot and Exilarchs
Epoch X: Yeshivot and Geonim
Epoch XI: The Kehillot
Epoch XII: Federatons of Kehillot

Part Four: Modernity and the Restoration of Statehood
Epoch XIII: Voluntary Associations
Epoch XIV: State and People

Kinship and Consent: The Jewish Political Tradition and Its Contemporary Uses

Introduction - The Jewish Political Tradition - Daniel J. Elazar


Introduction: The Edah as a Classic Republic
Chapter 1 -    Covenant as the Basis of the Jewish Political
Tradition - Daniel J. Elazar
Chapter 2 -    The Concept of the Three Ketarim: Their Place in
Jewish Political Thought and Implications for
Studying Jewish Constitutional History -
Stuart A. Cohen
Chapter 3 -    The Rabbinic Understanding of the Covenant -
Gordon Freeman

Introduction: The Constitutional Dimension of Jewish History
Chapter 4 -    Prolegomena to Jewish Political Theory -
Bernard Susser and Eliezer Don-Yehiya
Chapter 5 -    The Jewish People as the Classic Diaspora: A
Political Analysis - Daniel J. Elazar
Chapter 6 -    The Attitude Toward the State in Modern Jewish
Thought Before Zionism - Eliezer Schweid

Introduction: The Epochs Explored
Chapter 7 -    The Transition from Tribal Republic to Monarchy in
Ancient Israel and Its Impression on Jewish
Political History - Moshe Weinfeld
Chapter 8 -    The Kehillah - Daniel J. Elazar
Chapter 9 -    Political Conflict and the Use of Power in the
World of the Geniza - Shlomo Dov Goitein
Chapter 10 -   On Power and Authority: The Halakhic Stance of the
Traditional Community and Its Contemporary
Implications - Menachem Elon
Chapter 11 -   Individual and Community in the Middle Ages -
Gerald Blidstein
Chapter 12 -   Patterns of Political Organization and Leadership
in Modern Jewish Communities and Their
Contemporary Implications - Peter Y. Medding


Introduction: Judaism and Jewish Communities in the Contemporary
Chapter 13 -   The Jewish People and the Kingdom of Heaven - A
Study of Jewish Theocracy - Ella Belfer
Chapter 14 -   The Jewish Political Tradition as a Vehicle for
Jewish Auto-Emancipation - Dan V. Segre
Chapter 15 -   Toward a General Theory of Jewish Political
Interests and Behavior - Peter Y. Medding
Chapter 16 -   The Application of Jewish Public Law in the State
of Israel - Menachem Elon
Chapter 17 -   Moral and Symbolic Elements in the Politics of
Israel-Diaspora Relations - Charles S. Liebman
Chapter 18 -   Halakhah as a Ground for Creating a Shared
Political Dialogue Among Contemporary Jews -
David Hartman
Afterword -    Future Directions - Daniel J. Elazar

Covenant and Polity in Biblical Israel: Biblical Foundations and Jewish Expressions



Chapter 1 Covenant as a Political Concept
a. Covenant and the Purposes of Politics
b. The Idea of Covenant
c. Covenant, Natural Law, and Constitutionalism
d. Covenant, Compact, and Contract
Chapter 2 Covenant and the Origins of Political Society
a. Three Models
b. Biblical Expression of the Three Models
c. Covenants and New Societies
d. Covenant and the Frontier
Chapter 3 Biblical Origins
a. Biblical Beginnings
b. Reading the Bible
c. The Bible as Political Commentary
d. The Political Purpose of the Bible
e. The Bible and the Covenant Idea
f. Covenantal Dynamics: Hearkening and Hesed
Chapter 4 The Bible and Political Life in Covenant
a. The Federal Way of Covenant
b. The Political Character of Biblical Covenants
c. Covenant as the Foundation of Justice, Obligations,
and Rights
d. God's Federal Universe


Chapter 5 Bereshith: The Covenants of Creation
a. Creation as Making Distinctions
b. Principles of Organization and Relationship
c. Human Choice Determines Human Destiny
d. The Biblical Organization of Time
e. The Basic Flaw in Human Impulses
f. The Noahide Covenant: The Biblical Basis of Human
g. The Emergence of Peoples, Polities and Empires
h. Challenging God: A Breach of the Covenant
i. Beginnings of the Westward Movement
Chapter 6 Abraham and His Children: Migration and Covenant
a. Migration and the Founding of a New Nation
b. Exercising Power in the International Arena
c. Brit Ben Habetarim: The Covenant of Land and People
d. Abraham as Partner, God as Judge
e. Territory Gained through Covenant
f. The Akedah
g. Isaac's Subsequent Career
Chapter 7 Jacob and Esau: Federal Versus Natural Man
a. Jacob and Esau: The Struggle Continues
b. Covenant or Contract?
c. Jacob Becomes Israel
d. Hierarchy: The Contrast with Covenant
e. Two Excurses: Esau Becomes Edom, Judah and Tamar
f. The Tribes are Founded
Chapter 8 Freedom and Covenant: Exodus, Sinai and Sefer Habrit
a. Sinai: The Paradigmatic Constituting Covenant
Chapter 9 The Mosaic Polity: What Else Happened at Sinai?
a. The Covenant and the Book of the Covenant
b. Completing the Act of Covenanting
c. Explicating the Covenantal Text
d. Numbers: The Application of the Sinai Covenant
e. The Mosaic Regime
Chapter 10 From Covenant to Constitution: Deuteronomy
a. Confronting an Ancient Constitution
b. Was Deuteronomy Actually in Force?
c. Why was Deuteronomy Necessary?
d. The Structure and Contents of Deuteronomy
Appendix I - The Biblical Covenantal Chain
Appendix II - Schematic of the Deuteronomic Constitution


Chapter 10 Joshua: God's Federal Republic
a. The Political Discussion in the Former Prophets
b. The Mosaic Covenantal Paradigm in Action
c. The Former Prophets and their Underlying Political
d. The Covenant Idea and Prophetic History
e. Major Problems in Reading the Book of Joshua
f. The Immediate Problems of the Israelite Tribal
g. The Larger Problem of the Good Commonwealth
h. Joshua's Authority is Established in the Keter
i. Elements Fostering Civic Virtue: Historical Memory
j. Elements Fostering Civic Virtue: Maintaining the
k. How a Covenanted People Wage War: Jericho and Ai
Chapter 11 The Classic Regime and Its Tasks
a. Renewing the Covenant at Shechem
b. An Unexpected Protectorate: The Covenant with the
c. The Completion of Joshua's Conquests
d. The Division of the Land
e. A Seat of Government: The Tent of Assembly at
f. The Cities of Refuge
g. Joshua's Farewell Addresses
h. National Unity Tested
i. Joshua's Farewell Address to the Assembled
j. The Renewal of the National Covenant and
k. The Future World Order and the Right of Every
Nation to the Land Assigned It by God
l. The End of an Era
Chapter 12 Judges: The Reality?
a. The Regime of the Judges
b. The Character of the Book
c. An Outline of the Book
d. What Does Judges Teach Us?
e. From Ideological to Territorial Democracy
f. The Decline of Republican Virtue


Chapter 13 Covenant and Kingdom: Dealing with Fundamental Regime
a. The End of the Tribal Federation
b. The Constitutional Process of Regime Change
c. David Begins to Advance
d. From Outlaw to King
e. David's New Regime
f. David the King
g. The Role of Covenanting in a Constitutional
Chapter 14 The Institutionalized Federal Monarchy
a. Israel: Monarchy or Theocracy?
b. The Federal Monarchy: A Case Study in Covenantal
c. The Use of Psalms to Legitimate Covenant as
d. Psalms: Covenant as Relationship
e. The Regime Instituted by David
f. The Babylonian Exile
Chapter 15 Covenant as Judgement, Law and Government
a. The Prophets: Covenant and Judgment
b. Ordinary Covenants: The Permeation of the Moral
c. Covenants in International Relations
d. Covenant Applied: Israelite Political Organization
e. The Exercise of Political Functions
f. Fundamental Principles of Government and Politics
g. Closing the Covenantal Circle
h. The Biblical Covenantal Chain


Chapter 16 Talmudic Constitutionalism
a. The Talmud: Covenant as Torah and Halakhah
b. Bringing Covenanting into the Liturgy
c. Torah as Covenant
d. The Pharasaic Revolution
e. Covenantal Concepts in the Talmud
f. The Talmudic Polity
g. Covenant as a Value Concept
h. Holy Community
i. The Talmudic Regime
Chapter 17 Medieval Covenant Theory
a. The Beginnings of Systematic Jewish Political
b. Saadia Gaon
c. Moses Maimonides
d. Judah Halevi
e. Don Asaac Abravanel
f. Others to Consider
g. Kabbalah and Covenant
Chapter 18 Covenant and Polity in the Jewish Historical
a. The Epochs of Jewish Constitutional History
b. Post-Biblical Covenantal Institutions
c. New Institutions -- New Covenants
d. The Kehillah: A Covenantal Partnership
e. Covenant Ceremonies
f. Modern Adaptations
g. Contemporary Israel
h. The New Covenant Theology and its Political
Chapter 19 The Covenant Idea and the Jewish Political Tradition:
A Summary Statement
a. An Aristocratic Federal Republic
b. The Covenant Idea in Jewish Political Thought
c. The Appropriate Regime
d. Covenant and Tensions in the Tradition
e. Jewish Political Culture and Behavior
f. The Biblical-Covenantal Approach to Political

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Covenant and Commonwealth: From Christian Separation Through the Protestant Reformation

Introduction: Covenant and the Three Separations


Chapter 1 - Covenant Traditions in the West
a. West Asian Oaths, Contracts and Treaties
b. Hellenic-Ionian Leagues
c. Roman Foederatii
d. The Separation of the Jewish and Christian Traditions
e. The Church Fathers
f. Toward Hierarchy
Chapter 2 - Medieval and Modern Separations
a. Interregnum: The Organic Model Takes Over
b. Fellowships of Christian Believers
c. Reformation and Covenant Revival: The Second
d. Secularization: The Third Separation
e. Four Political Perspectives


Chapter 3 - Feudalism: Covenantal Fraud, Heresy or Synthesis?
a. A Mixture of Hierarchy and Contract
b. Italy: Feudalism and City Republics
c. France: The Ever-Hierarchical
d. The Iberian Peninsula
e. Europe to the East
Chapter 4 - The Holy Roman Empire
a. The Germans and the Holy Roman Empire
b. Municipal Corporations
c. Two Reform Efforts: The Conciliar Movement and the
Imperial Diet of 1495
Chapter 5 - Oaths and Covenants in the Mountains and Lowlands
a. Covenantors in the Mountains
b. Coniuratio Helvetica
c. The Covenantal Basis of Swiss Federalism
d. What Made the Swiss Special
e. The Low Countries
Chapter 6 - Oath Societies in Greater Scandinavia
a. The Scandinavian Polity
b. Cultural Continuities
c. Iceland: An Oath-Bound Republic
d. Why Did the Scandinavian Countries Become Lutheran?
e. Conclusion
Chapter 7 - The British Isles: Frontier, West, and Borderlands
a. England: Pacts and Feuds
b. Wales: Pacts and Tribes
c. Scotland: Pacts to Covenants
d. Possible Sources of Covenantal Culture
e. The Survival of Covenant


Chapter 8 - Federal Theology and Politics in the Reformation
a. Political Developments and the Reemergence of
Covenant Ideas
b. The Reformation Community
c. Zwingli Versus Luther
d. Switzerland: The Concrete Expresson of Covenant
e. Zurich: Zwingli's Covenantal Community
Chapter 9 - The Political Theology of Federalism
a. The Tenets of Federal Theology
b. The Calvinist Deviation
c. Geneva Becomes Calvin's Republic
d. The Triumph of Calvinism
e. Covenant and the Radical Wing of the Reformation
f. The Wider Impact of the Reformed Idea
Chapter 10 - The Aborted Spread of Reformed Federalism in Germany
and France
a. Germany: The Struggle Between Covenantal and
Hierarchical Views
b. Enter Romantic Nationalism
c. France: Huguenots and Resistance to Tyrants
d. The Huguenot Diaspora
Chapter 11 - The Netherlands: The Covenant and the United
a. The Covenantal Roots of the Revolt Against Spain
b. Independence and Federalism
c. The Heyday and Decline of the United Provinces
d. Religion and Politics in the Netherlands
e. The Subsequent History of Dutch Covenantalism


Chapter 12 - English Puritanism
a. The Marrow of Puritan Divinity
b. Back to the Bible
c. The Public Edifice of Reformation
d. The Four Covenants
e. The Puritans and the Civil War
f. Victory: The Political Covenant Diminished
g. From Puritanism to Whiggism
h. The Abandonment of Covenant
Chapter 13 - The Reformation of Covenanted Scotland
a. Federal Theology and National Survival
b. John Knox and the Covenant
c. The Reformation in Scotland
d. The Seventeenth Century Struggle for Covenant and
e. The Solemn League and Covenant
f. The Restoration and Represson of the Covenanters
Chapter 14 - Scotland and Covenant After Union: A Case Study
a. From Covenanted Community to Schismatic Kirks
b. Universal Education in a Covenanted Community
c. The Scottish Diaspora Spreads Covenantalism
d. Kirk and Chambers: The Twin Pillars of Scottish
e. Covenant in Contemporary Scotland


Chapter 15 - A Proper Covenantal Commonwealth
a. The Multifaceted Covenant: The Covenantal Approach
to the Problem of Organizations, Constitutions, and
b. The Res Publica of Althusius
c. Constitutional Design or the Rules of Order
d. Polity and Political Economy
e. A Summing Up
Conclusion - Covenantal Space in a Hierarchical World
a. How Oath and Pact Societies Survived
b. The Sources of Covenant: Culture, Frontier,
c. The Concretization of Covenantal Behavior: The
Biblical Idea and the Limits of Barbarism
d. The Uses of Covenant: Preserving and Fostering
Liberty and Equality
Excursis - Covenant Versus Hierarchy in Islam and Asia
a. Islam: An Abortive Beginning
b. The Problematics of Covenant in Islamic
Political Thought
c. "Covenants" with "Peoples of the Book"
d. Covenant in Islam: An Assessment
e. Covenant in Baha'i: An Extension of the
Islamic Worldview
f. Asia East of the Fertile Crescent:
A Continent Without Covenant
g. East Asian Tribal Confederations

Wrestling Until Day-Break: Searching for Meaning in the Thinking on the Holocaust



Chapter 1 - From The Essence of Judaism to This People Israel:
Leo Baeck's Theological Confrontation with the Period of Nazism
and the Holocaust

Chapter 2 - The Renewal of Mussar Literature in the
Ethico-Theological Teaching of Viktor Frankl

Chapter 3 - Dilemmas of Ethics and Faith in Literature Written
During the Holocaust

Chapter 4 - The Existential and Moral Dilemma of Armed Resistance
in the Ghetto: Shimshon Drenger's Realistic-Idealistic Thought

Chapter 5 - The Zionist Theodicy of Rabbi Issachar Shlomo


Chapter 6 - Faith, Ethics and the Holocaust: The Justification
of Religion in the Crisis of the Holocaust

Chapter 7 - The Spanish Exile and the Holocaust: A Study in
Jewish Spiritual Response to Catastrophe

Chapter 8 - The Holocaust as a Challenge to Jewish Religious
Thinking in Our Age

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Federal Systems of the World: A Handbook of Federal, Confederal and Autonomy Arrangements


Antigua and Barbuda
Faroe Islands
Aaland Islands
Jammu and Kashmir
Liechtenstein: Switzerland
Marshall Islands: United States of America
Micronesia: United States of America
Monaco: France
Myanmar (Burma)
New Zealand:
Cook Islands
Niue Island
Palau: United States of America
Papua New Guinea
Azores and Madeira
St. Kitts and Nevis
Solomon Islands
South Africa
Basque Country
Sri Lanka
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Northern Ireland
Isle of Man
Channel Islands (Jersey and Guernsey)
United States of America
United States of America: Federacies
Native American Nations (Indian Tribes)
Puerto Rico
Northern Marianas Islands

Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Baltic Assembly
Benelux Economic Union
Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
European Union (EU)
Israel--Palestinian Entity--Jordan
The Nordic Council and Council of Ministers
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Appendix A:    Distribution of Functions between General
Government and Constituent Units
Appendix B:    Symbolic Representation of Autonomous Entities
Appendix C:    Principal Shared Rule Arrangements
Appendix D:    Table of Home-Rule Territories

Federalism and the Way to Peace

1. The Federalist Revolution and the Way to Peace
2. Federalism and Pluralism in a Free Society
3. The Multi-Faceted Covenant in the Thought of Johannes
4. Europe and the Federal Experience
5. The Use of Federalism in the Reconstitution of the Ex-Soviet
6. Federalism as a Solution in South Africa
7. Can Federal Arrangements Serve the Cause of Middle East Peace?
8. Covenant and the American Founding
9. Cooperative Federalism in the United States
10. A Final Word

Jerusalem Letter / Viewpoints / Survey of Arab Affairs - 1995-1996

JL307 "Israeli-Russian Relations Since the Collapse of the Soviet Union," Robert O. Freedman (January 15, 1995)

VP308 "The Woeful State of Saudi Finances," Eliyahu Kanovsky (February 1, 1995)

JL309 "Post-Soviet Jewry at Mid-Decade -- Part One," Betsy Gidwitz (February 15, 1995)

JL310 "Post-Soviet Jewry at Mid-Decade -- Part Two," Betsy Gidwitz (March 1, 1995)

VP311 "The Jewish Agency: Reorganizing for Tomorrow," Howard M. Weisband (March 15, 1995)

VP312 "The Meaning of Terrorism for the IDF Military Commander," Louis Rene Beres (April 2, 1995)

VP313 "Jewish Television for the Next Century," Morton Weinfeld (April 16, 1995)

VP314 "The Jewish Polity: Options for the Future -- Some Planning Guidelines," Daniel J. Elazar (May 1, 1995)

JL315 "The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s," Gabriel Ben-Dor (June 1, 1995)

VP316 "Israel, Egypt, and Nuclear Polity," Gerald M. Steinberg (June 15,1995)

VP317 "The Use of Direct Democracy (Referenda and Plebiscites) in Modern Government," Daniel J. Elazar and Kirk Preuss (July 2, 1995)

VP318 "The Law of Return Reconsidered," David Clayman (July 16, 1995)

VP319 "Transitions at the Jewish Agency Assembly, 5755- 1995," Daniel J. Elazar (August 1, 1995)

VP320 "How European Jewish Communities Can Choose and Plan Their Own Futures," Daniel J. Elazar (September 1, 1995)

VP321 "Political Extremism in Asia: The Iranian Threat," Colin Rubenstein (September 15, 1995)

JL322 "Canadian Jewry: A Diaspora Community in Transition," David H. Goldberg (October 1, 1995)

VP323 "Hebrew Versus Greek Traditions of Individualism and Freedom: A Psychotherapeutic Perspective," Kalman Kaplan (October 15, 1995)

VP324 "Yitzhak Rabin and the Israeli Polity: A Cultural Memorial," Daniel J. Elazar (November 7, 1995)

VP325 "Oslo Two: Where will it Lead?" Daniel J. Elazar (November 15, 1995)

VP326 "Israel After Rabin," Daniel J. Elazar (December 15, 1995)

JL327 "Reinventing World Jewry � Part One: Fundamentals, Tasks and Functions," Daniel J. Elazar (January 1, 1996)

JL328 "Reinventing World Jewry - Part Two: Dividing and Sharing Tasks and Functions," Daniel J. Elazar (January 15, 1996)

VP329 "Israel and Samson: Some Tenuously Biblical Reflections on Strategy," Louis Rene Beres (February 15, 1996)

JL330 "Ukranian Jewry: Some Personal Observations," Moshe Tutnauer (March 1, 1996)

VP331 "Israel's Economic Dilemma," Yakir Plessner (March 15, 1996)

VP332 "Religious Zionism and the Jewish State," Shmuel Sandler (April 1, 1996)

VP333 "Primaries Have Come to Israel," Daniel J. Elazar (April 15, 1996)

VP334 "Jewish-Israeli Identity Among Israel's Future Teachers," Yair Auron (May 1, 1996)

JL335 "The Israeli Elections of 1996: Some Preliminary Analysis and First Thoughts," Daniel J. Elazar (June 2, 1996)

JL336 "Jewish Identity in Lithuania," Sidney and Alice Goldstein (June 16, 1996)

To Newest Books / Complete Publications List / Title-Author Indexes / Top of Page / Order / Home Page

Survey of Arab Affairs - Closing issue, May 15, 1996

SAA39 "Israel in a Changing World," Mordechai Abir (January 1, 1995)

SAA40 "The Peace Process in the Middle East - A Stock- Taking," Ruth Lapidoth (May 15, 1995)

SAA41 "Nonconventional Terrorism: Nuclear-Chemical- Biological," Boaz Ganor (August 15, 1995)

SAA42 "The Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: A Legal Analysis of the Prospects," Justus R. Weiner (December 1, 1995)

SAA43 "Palestinians Go to the Polls," David Clayman (February 1, 1996)

SAA44 "The Peace Process and the 'Right of Return'," Justus R. Weiner (May 15, 1996)

Jewish Political Studies Review

Volume 1, Numbers 1-2 (Spring 5749/1989)

* The Themes of the Jewish Political Studies Review - Daniel J.
* The Jewish People and the Kingdom of Heaven: A Study of Jewish
Theocracy - Ella Belfer
* Keter as a Jewish Political Symbol: Origins and Implications -
Stuart A. Cohen
* The Language of Jewish Political Discourse - Gordon M. Freeman
* Interpretation of Genesis - Leo Strauss
* The Book of Joshua as a Political Classic - Daniel J. Elazar
* Ben-Gurion's Concept of Mamlahtiut and the Forming Reality of
the State of Israel - Nathan Yanai

Volume 1, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5750/1989)

"Jewish Political Studies in the University"

* Studying and Teaching Jewish Political Studies in the
University - Daniel J. Elazar
* Bible and Pedagogy in the Teaching of Western Civilization -
Harvey Shulman
* Political Philosophy and the Jewish Political Tradition: Can
They be Integrated? - Harold M. Waller
* The Study and Teaching of Jewish Political Materials in Courses
on Political Philosophy - Morton Frisch
* Israel's Democracy and Comparative Politics - Benyamin
* Comparative Politics and the Jewish Political Experience - Zvi
* The Jewish Dimension in Teaching International Relations -
Efraim Inbar
* Teaching the Jewish Political Tradition to the Jewish Civil
Service - Jonathan S. Woocher
* A Framework and Model for Studying and Teaching the Jewish
Political Tradition - Daniel J. Elazar and Stuart A. Cohen

Volume 2, Numbers 1-2 (Spring 5750/1990)

* Jethro's Advice in Medieval and Early Modern Jewish and
Christian Political Thought - Avraham Melamed
* "Ideal" and "Real" in Classical Jewish Political Theory -
Gerald J. Blidstein
* Zionist Voluntarism in the Political Struggle: 1939-1948 -
Yosef Gorny
* The Relationship between the Jewish Political Tradition and the
Jewish Civil Religion in the United States - Deborah Dash Moore
* Jews and Ukrainians in Canada: A Comparative Study of
Diaspora-Homeland Relations - Morton  Weinfeld and Harold Troper
* The Impact of Denomination: Differences in the Israel-Related
Opinions of American Rabbis and Jewish Communal Workers - Steven
M. Cohen and Gerald B. Bubis
* American Jews and Non-Jews: Comparative Opinions on the
Palestinian Uprising - Eytan Gilboa
* Succession to Public Office in Rabbinic Law - Stuart A. Cohen

Volume 2, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5751/1990)

"Israel as a Jewish State"

* Israel as a Jewish State - Daniel J. Elazar
* Jewish Political Traditions and Contemporary Israeli Politics -
Alan Dowty
* Does Israel Have a Liberal-Democratic Tradition? - Benyamin
* The Jewish State and the Jewish People: Israeli Intellectual
Thought from the Six-Day War to the 1980s - Yosef Gorny
* The Origins of the National and the Statist Traditions in
Zionist Foreign Policy - Shmuel Sandler
* Jews, Jewishness, and Israel's Foreign Policy - Efraim Inbar

Volume 3, Numbers 1-2 (Spring 5751/1991)

* Land, State and Diaspora in the History of the Jewish Polity -
Daniel J. Elazar
* The Jewish Experience of Oppression as Portrayed in the Old
Testament: Leadership and Survival Strategies - Shirley
* The Bible and Intra-Jewish Politics: Early Rabbinic Portraits
of King David - Stuart A. Cohen
* Rabbinic Views on Kingship - A Study in Jewish Sovereignty: A
Precis - David Polish
* Ben-Gurion and Jewish Foreign Policy - Giora Goldberg
* The Changing Character of American Jewish Leadership: Some
Policy Implications - Jonathan Woocher
* The Jewish Community of Cuba: Between Continuity and Extinction
- Margalit Bejarano
* The Mizrachi Entrance into the WZO Educational Enterprise in
the Diaspora - Henry F. Skirball

Volume 3, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5752/1991)

"Obligations and Rights in the Jewish Political Tradition"

* Obligations and Rights in the Jewish Political Tradition: Some
Preliminary Observations - Daniel J. Elazar
* The Political and the Sacred: Political Obligation and the Book
of Deuteronomy - Harvey Shulman
* The Right to Belief in Jewish Philosophy - Norbert M. Samuelson
* Individual and Community: Rights and Obligations as Reflected
in Two Nineteenth Century Responsa - Ira Robinson
* Haredi Conceptions of Obligations and Rights: Polish Jewry, c.
1900-1939 - Gershon C. Bacon
* Two Orthodox Jewish Theories of Rights: Sol Roth and Isaac
Breuer - Alan Mittleman
* Is There a Practical Way to Bridge the Gap Between Traditional
Jewish and Modern Expectations of Rights and Obligations? -
Daniel J. Elazar

Volume 4, Number 1 (Nos.1-2) (Spring 5752/1992)

* Deuteronomy as Israel's Ancient Constitution: Some Preliminary
Reflections - Daniel J. Elazar
* In the Shadow of the Mountain: Consent and Coercion at Sinai -
Gerald J. Blidstein
* Louis Marshall, the Jewish Vote, and the Republican Party -
David G. Dalin
* Authority and Legitimacy in Jewish Leadership: The Case of
Lucien Wolf (1857-1930) - Mark Levene
* Medieval Rationalism or Mystic Philosophy? Reflections on the
Correspondence between Leo Strauss and Eric Voegelin - Ellis

Volume 4, Number 2 (Nos. 3-4) (Fall 5753/1992)

"Thomas Hobbes Confronts the Bible"

* Hobbes Confronts Scripture - Daniel J. Elazar
* A Critique of Hobbes's Critique of Biblical and Natural
Religion in Leviathan - Thomas L. Pangle
* King David and Uriah the Hittite in the Political Thought of

Thomas Hobbes - Thomas S. Schrock
* The Idea of the Messiah in the Theology of Thomas Hobbes -
Robert P. Kraynak
* The Idea of Christianity in Hobbes's Leviathan - Timothy Fuller

Volume 5, Numbers 1 & 2 (Spring 5753/1993)

"Communal Democracy and Liberal Democracy
in the Jewish Political Tradition"

* Communal Democracy and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish
Political Tradition - Daniel J. Elazar
* The Attitude Towards Democracy in Medieval Jewish Philosophy -
Avraham Melamed
* Democracy and Judaism: The Question of Equality - Martin Sicker
* From Private Rights to Public Good: The Communitarian Critique
of Liberalism in Judaic Perspective- Alan Mittleman
* Communal Democracy, Modernity, and the Jewish Political
Tradition - Robert A. Licht

Volume 5, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5754/1993)

"The Sephardic Political Experience"

* Toward a Political History of the Sephardic Diaspora - Daniel
J. Elazar
* The Contribution of Spanish Jewry to the World of Jewish Law -
Menachem Elon
* Isaac Abravanel and Aristotle's Politics: A Drama of Errors -
Avraham Melamed
* Communal Organization of the Jews of Tripolitania During the
Late Ottoman Period - Harvey E. Goldberg
* The Sephardi Diaspora in Cochin, India - Nathan Katz and Ellen
S. Goldberg
* The Organizational Framework of the Jewish Communities in Italy
- Yaakov Andrea Lattes
* The Jewish Community of Spain - Diana Ayton-Shenker
* The Integration of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in Venezuela
through the Decision-Making Process in the Educational System -
Lily Blank

Volume 6, Numbers 1-2 (Spring 5754/1994)

* Max Weber's Conception of Covenant in Ancient Judaism, with
Reference to the Book of Judges - Alan Mittleman
* John Selden and the Biblical Origins of the Modern
International Political System - Abraham Berkowitz
* Politics and Perfection: Gersonides vs. Maimonides - Menachem
* The Third Charter of the Jewish Merchants of Venice, 1611: A
Case Study in Complex Multifaceted Negotiations - Benjamin Ravid
* Jewish Responses to the Nazi Threat, 1933-1939: An Evaluation -
Abraham J. Edelheit
* An Anthropological and Postmodern Critique of Jewish Feminist
Theory - Maurie Sacks

Volume 6, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5755/1994)

"Zionism: Some Recurring Questions"

* The Jerusalem Jewish Community, Ottoman Authorities, and Arab
Population in the Second Half ofthe Eighteenth Century: A Chapter
of Local History - Jacob Barnai
* Waste Land with Promise: Chaim Nachman Bialik's America -
Michael Brown
* Some German Jewish Orthodox Attitudes Toward the Land of Israel
and the Zionist Movement - Alan Mittleman
* The Social, Cultural and Political Impact of Zionism in Libya
(Research Note) - Rachel Simon
* Religious Values and Political Expediency - Australia and the
Question of Jerusalem: 1947-1950 - Chanan Reich
* Jews, Israelis and Citizens - National Identity and Patterns of
Political Involvement among Israeli Adolescents - Hanna Adoni and
Uri Adoni

Volume 7, Numbers 1-2 (Spring 5755/1995)

"Spinoza and the Bible"

* Spinoza and the Bible - Daniel J. Elazar
* Reading the Bible with Spinoza - George Gross
* The Use and Abuse of the Bible in Spinoza's Tractatus
Theologico-Politicus - Harvey Shulman
* The Histories and Successes of the Hebrews: The Demise of the
Biblical Polity in Spinoza's Theologico-Political Treatise -
Martin Yaffe
* Power, Politics and Religion in Spinoza's Political Thought -
Douglas J. Den Uyl
* On the Unity of Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus - Paul
J. Bagley

Volume 7, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5756/1995)

"The Federation Movement at 100"

* The Federation Movement in Three Contexts: American Jewry, the
Jewish Political Tradition, and Modernity - Daniel J. Elazar
* The Federations Step Forward - Daniel J. Elazar
* Examining a Non-Centralized Religoethnic Community - Daniel J.
* The CJF and the Jewish Agency: An Historical Overview - Ernest
* The American Jewish Polity - Daniel J. Elazar
* The Impact of Changing Issues on Federations and Their
Structures - Gerald Bubis
* Transcending the Progressive Solution - Daniel J. Elazar

Volume 8, Numbers 1-2 (Spring 5756/1996)

"Judaism and Modernity"

* Religion and Modernity in Our Day - Eliezer Schweid
* Halakhah - The Governing Norm - Gerald J. Blidstein
* American Modernity and the Jews - Robert A. Licht
* Positivist Rhetoric and Its Functions in Haredi Orthodoxy -
Alan J. Yuter
* Halakhic Interpretation from a Constitutional Perspective -
Daniel J. Elazar

Volume 8, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5757/1996)

"The Constitutional Documents of Modern
and Contemporary Jewish Communities"

* The Constitutional Documents of the Italian Jewish Community -
Yaakov A. Lattes
* The Foundation Documents of the Jewish Community Council (Vaad
Ha'Ir) of Montreal - Ira Robinson
* The Jewish Polity on Long Island - In Search of Continuity -
Nitza Druyan
* The Development of Vaad HaHinuch (Argentina) as Reflected in
its Bylaws (1935-1943) - Efraim Zadoff
* Constitutional Documents of Two Sephardic Communities in Latin
America (Argentina and Cuba) - Margalit Bejarano
* Constitutional Documents of the Kehila Ashkenazi in Mexico -
Alicia Gojman de Backal
* South African Jewry: An Analysis of Constitutional Documents -
Abigail Weidenbaum

Jerusalem Letter Learning Kits

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs has been publishing its
Jerusalem Letter/Viewpoints series for nearly two decades, with
every issue providing an up-to-date and sophisticated analysis of
significant developments in Israel, the Jewish world, and beyond.

Jerusalem Letter/Viewpoints collections offer a rich learning
resource, with each collection focusing on a particular issue.

Jerusalem Letter Learning Kits are available for the following


Modernity Exhausted - Samuel Dresner

The Cultural Implications of the Spread of the Market in
Contemporary Israel - Jerry Z. Muller

The Vacuum in Moral Leadership in Israel and the
Alternatives for Filling It - Yosef Goell

The Peace Process and the Jewishness of the Jewish State -
Daniel J. Elazar

The Land of Israel vs. a Jewish State: The Oslo Agreement
Revives an Old Debate - Joseph Alpher

On the Home Front: New Challenges to Zionism - Daniel J.

The Jewish State and Democracy - Eliezer Schweid

What is Israel's Education Policy - Eliezer Schweid

The Law of Return Reconsidered - David Clayman

Tremors in Israel-Diaspora Relations - Daniel J. Elazar

Yitzhak Rabin and the Israeli Polity: A Cultural Memorial -
Daniel J. Elazar



1. Israel's Constitution
2. Politics and Elections
3. Religion and Politics
4. Social Change and Conflict
5. The Economy
6. Defense and Security
7. Education
8. Jews, Arabs and the Territories
9. Ideology and Politics

Part I: Jews and Arabs in Eretz Israel
Part II: Jewish Settlement in the Territories
Part III: Palestinian Arabs in the Territories and Jordan
Part IV: The Intifada, the PLO, and Islamic Fundamentalism
Part V: The Peace Process

Part I: The Arab World
Part II: Security Issues
Part III: The Economic Situation